The basic purpose of engineering – lightening and increase of efficiency of human labour, expansion of his opportunities. The achievement of modern engineering are based on fundamental scientific discoveries and researches.
At present variable speed drive (variator) application of automatic stepless transmission for a great number of cars is taking place. The most important characteristic feature of the new variator is its adaptiveness to the load that makes this transmission (having such variator) automatic one. Moreover this adaptiveness is regulated (controlled) and it is due to this fact than the car speed is controlled. The prototype of new variator was produced at the AMO ZIL plant in Moscow and undergone laboratory tests. Judging by given characteristics of a variator testing model it meets all demands to stepless automatic transmissions used in automobiles.
Research in power supply of automobiles proves that a hybrid power unit is the best solution as far as economy of fuel, ecology, ergonomics, road safety and dynamics are concerned. Under optimum operating conditions a modern, well-tuned diesel with turbo-supercharging and intermediate cooling of supercharged air converts not less than 40% of chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy, i.e. demonstrates efficiency of 0,4 and good environmental performance.
A term of the vario-wheel is coined by the authors and stands for the driving wheel of a car with a built-in variable-speed drive. The cylindrical form and small size of the automatic continuos variable transmission (ACVT) based on the new multi-disc variable-speed drive (MVD) allow to place this device into the driving wheel. The vario-wheel has all the advantages of a hub-traction wheel: small size, low weight and costs, ease of use, high efficiency. Unlike of the electric drive, the vario-wheel needs neither generator nor electronic control system. The torque supply to the vario-wheel is very simple even if an independent suspension of wheel is used. Vario-wheels show better performance with hybrid power units due to high efficiency and a wide range control of the transmitting ratio.
This article covers the issue of vario-wheels application for city buses. However, it can also be used in motor or electric cars, especially in those, that favour the use of hub-traction wheels – electric or hydraulic. As to powerful vehicles, the vario-wheel could be used best for multi-axle trucks, cross-country, earth-moving vehicles, wheel tractors and others.
A new concept of an electric motor car and electrobus essentially allows us to lower mass of the power unit, to increase energy efficiency. The run between boost charges of electric motor car and electrobuses of the new concept is 400...600 km. Mass and volume of the power unit is practically equal to masses and volumes of power aggregates of conventional automobiles and buses, that allow to mount the power aggregate on conventional automobile and bus chassis, after removing existing aggregates.
The combination of a multidisk variable-speed drive and a superflywheel establishes especially favourable requirements for a development of rather high vehicle's power. This combination ensures effective recuperation of energy and eliminates necessity in ABS and retarders.