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Light, photons, velosity of light, ether and others of "banality"

Nikolay Noskov
Translated from Russian by Jury Sarychev

The methodology of the modern physics which has arisen on "yeast" of a relativity theory, threw into confusion of many scientist and led to appearance of a great number of the scientific theories similar more on fantasies of medieval scholasticists.

So, for example, professor Vejnik, notorious of subjects, that has suffered for criticism of a relativity theory (he simply has derided it), writes in "Thermodynamics" – textbook for the students [1]: "...The important lack of quantum mechanics is an absence of managing ideas, which would allow to judge structure of a particle. In result such banal elementary particle, as photon, has got in bit exclusive (the considering the light as a wave as well as Einstein's formula E = mc2, apparently promoted to that). Actually photon basically does not differ from electron and other elementary particles (about it is possible to judge on photos...). It was enough to clear up structure of electron or photon to make complete notion about all microcosms and about the laws, controlling them. According to the common theory (Vejnik – N.N.), the elementary particle is an assembly of microcharges. To last concern: mass (substanceons), space (metrons), time (chronons), electron, thermons, Plank constant etc. Number of various elementary particles is infinitely great".

Thus, we see as a space-time, wave-particle, principle of uncertainty, equivalent of mass – energy and others of "essence" continue to create of all new monsters as termons, chronons, metrons and substanceons. As to a photo, if Vejnik were shown a snapshot of a night highway, he would define "banality" of a motor vehicle leaving a track of headlights on a photosnapshot too. "The Dream of intellect creates of monsters" (Goija).

"A Reason of all natural phenomena is comprehended through reasons of mechanical character, otherwise it is necessary to refuse any hope to understand something in physics". (Huygens "The Treatise about light" [2]). Famous researchers and thinkers of different times: Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, Gook, Descartes, d'Alambert, Fresnel, Faraday, Helmholtz and many others stated the same thought in different variants. So, Maxwell in "The Treatise about an electricity and magnetism" [3] has written: "Now we can not understand propagation (of interaction – N.N.) in time differently, something, as flight of the material substance through space, or as a status of movement or stress of medium already existing in space. Actually, as though energy was not transferred from one body to another in time, there should be a medium or substance, in which there is energy, after it has left one body, but yet has not reached another... Therefore, all these theories (wave, interaction and electromagnetism – N.N.) carry on to concept of the medium, in which the propagation takes place. If we shall accept this medium as a hypothesis, I think, it should occupy an outstanding place in our researches, and it is necessary to try to construct mental notion of its operation in full details; it also was my constant purpose in the present treatise".

But let us to imagine (on Wejnik) occurrence of photon. "Exited" electron flied on an orbit. And suddenly any "banal essence" separated from electron which, not having on that of any reasons and basis, irrespective of velocity and cyclic frequency of electron, gains the frequency of oscillations (after count of quantity of energy, which it should take away?), and mass – what it will turn out! The consequence here is not caused by reasons, and the physical reasons are not supported with logic and laws of a mechanics. What here is "mental notions" of the Maxwell?!

So, the Maxwell asserts, that energy on distance can be transferred only by two ways: either together with mass, or through the intermediate substance by waves. The existence of peculiar sort of matter as electromagnetic field is result of penetration of non-scientific mentality in physics. That is even not the heat liquid with helping of which they highly successfully described the oscillation energy of atoms and molecules of matter as well as thermal (electromagnetic) radiation. It is simple attempt to hide the ignorance and powerlessness before a riddle of a nature.

Outstanding minds of mankind solve these mysteries beginning from ancient Greek, Arabian, Chinese thinkers, from Newton, Gook, Huygens and finishing the modern researchers. Though they have achieved great success in usage of light (lasers etc.), however their knowledge of an essence of light has remained still very far from true.

Sights of Newton [4] on a nature of light were rather contradictory and inconsistent. Though he also was an ancestor of true scientific thinking, the fear of promotion of scientific hypotheses without a sufficient store of the experimental and observant facts has resulted him in other extreme: to indecision of thinking and to absence of a sequence in outputs. So, his sights concerning interaction of bodies on distance have led him to thought about existence of the intermediate medium. But by consideration of a nature of light he rejects this medium because "there is no sufficient store of experiences, by which the laws of operation of this ether would be precisely defined and are shown".

Certainly, in his time the statement of a question about properties and structure of an ether was premature, as there were no even such sciences, as optics, electromagnetism, nuclear and molecular physics and many others. And even presently such sciences as about an atomic nucleus and about elementary particles still "float in a fog". What can we say about ether – that is the following step of a structure of substance?

However number of observations, facts, experiments and knowledge of properties of ether was accumulated, and all great and a little significant theories have arisen only thanking "to mental construction of its operation". Einstein and Infield have named the ether as "scaffolding" for construction of the theories, which can be removed in a favor of existence of a general principle of relativity. But now it is difficult to imagine the rise of optics and electromagnetic theory, if the general principle of relativity has appeared before them.

"The Wave theory has won the Newtonian theory of the expiration by irreproachably qualitative and quantitative accuracy of the predictions" (S. Vavilov [5]) and not only it is. First, it is impossible to explain independence of velocity of light from velocity of a source by the theory of the expiration. Newton just considered, that the velocity of photons adds with velocity of a source. Secondly, the theory of the expiration predicted increase of velocity of light in the denser medium, and wave theory of Huygens – decrease of this velocity. The direct experiments on measuring of the light velocity in the dense medium, made by Fizeau and Foucault, have confirmed a wave nature of light.

The wave theory of light was confirmed both with theoretical and experimental works by Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz, Lebedev and other researchers. The Maxwell, for example, in "the Treatise..." has written: "...the light conducting medium at passing light through it is capacity of energy. In the wave theory advanced by Huygens, Fresnel, Jung, Green etc., this energy is considered partially potential and partially kinetic. Potential energy is considered as stipulated by deformation of elementary volumes of the medium. It means that we should consider the medium as elastic. The kinetic energy is considered as, stipulated by oscillatory movement of medium, therefore we should consider, that the medium has finite density. In the theory of an electricity and magnetism accepted in the present treatise, the existence of two sorts of energy – electrostatic and electrokinetic is recognized, and it is supposed, that they are localized not only in bodies, but also in each part of enclosing space. Therefore, our theory will be coordinated to the wave theory that both they assume existence of the medium capable to become the capacity of two sorts of energy". Thus Maxwell and Faraday as the people of wide scientific sights have specified that the ether is necessary not only for the wave theory of light (electrodynamism), but also for transference of interactions. This rather important argument is ignored till now by modern researchers as result of necessity to see "a new dress of the king" – curvature of space – time.

Here it is how taller Andersen has written about: "they have presented themselves as the skilful weavers and have told, that can weave such wonderful fabric, which differs by surprising property – becomes invisible to any man, which sits not on his place or is impassable silly... "I am not silly. It means that I am no mine place. Good grief! However I have not to show it" – the dignitary thought.

S. Vavilov has written: "the Wave theory triumphed, appear, final victory... But the celebration has appeared very premature... The wave theory has appeared helpless before the quantum laws of operation of light". [5]

We now shall be set by a question: really could this single fact against set others so sharply change opinion of the scientists?! Yes, there is a discretization of radiation; yes, photon flies as a monolithic particle. But really is there no similar behavior of a sound in air? Or on the contrary: is there no behavior of electromagnetic waves like sound?

Hertz [6] and his followers perfectly have seen property of electromagnetic radiation to transfer in enclosing space the spherical waves, which have been not localized, in space. (By the way, they also are not quantized, as modern luminaries confirm so far, as they are result not skipping of electrons from one orbit on another, but accelerated movement of free electrons in a conductor). Due to such property of long electromagnetic waves we look the TV set and we listen to the receiver from any point of sphere around the source of radiation. However, as soon as the frequency of electromagnetic waves passes some boundary in the side of increase, there is a direction of radiation.

The same occurs and to a sound. Such properties of a sound were discovered absolutely recently, in connection with obtaining ultrasound. It seemed that the ultrasonic waves have acute direction and can be considered as particles localized in space. Is it "feebleness of the wave theory"? It appears that each time, when the researchers are helpless something to explain they accuse of it a classical mechanics.

Feynman has shown [7], that the laws of oscillations depend on frequency, as the character of processes proceeding in the medium depends on it. However he was satisfied only by inference of the equation of oscillations, when pressure and temperature in an elastic wave vary adiabaticaly. Any researchers, including Feynman, have not considered the high frequencies of oscillations concerning length of free run of particles, when the processes occurring at it, result in absorption of heat. In this case is abundantly clear, that the oscillation can not be propagated by a spherical wave. It is because of allocation of directions of movement of separate particles. It can be only acutely directed, as the frequency of oscillations is less than "frequency" of free run of particles.

From analogy to properties of ultrasound the inference follows that the localization at all does not contradict the wave theory. Moreover, whether will appear, what air behaves as metal, and ultrasound has transversal waves?

Except for localization, photons, unlike radiowaves, have one more important property connected to their origin: strictly dosed in energy. This property of photons connected with a structure of atoms should not be distributed to all spectrums of electromagnetic waves. And here, especially Planck's constant, as the characteristic of energy of photons should not be considered in a more comprehensive sense, as it is made continually in physic sat last time. The Planck's constant has no any relation to a discretization of time, space and mass.

In connection with strict dosage of energy of photons a new science – quantum mechanics arose, in which from the very beginning and till now there were some unsolved questions. First: why electrons of atom, moving on circle or elliptic orbit, do not radiate photons, though they undergo centripetal acceleration? Second: what is the mechanism of radiation and absorption of photons?

The first question is connected to error, which is repeated in all tutorials and transactions on quantum mechanics. So, for example, Semenchenko in "The Selected chapters of theoretical physics" [8] has written: "Electrons can not move around of a nucleus long time, so far as under the laws of a classical electrodynamics any accelerated electron radiates electromagnetic energy. Therefore kinetic energy of electron decreases, and eventually it should fall on a nucleus". In "To Physics for all" [9] Kitajgorodsky even has calculated time of falling electron on a nucleus. It appeared equal to 100-th of second!

I ask the reader to look at the equation of a classical electrodynamics of Weber, consisting from three items. First item is law of Coulomb, second is change of force of interaction as a result of delay of a potential, third is that concerns to our subject of study. Here we see that formula of Weber includes the scalar value of distance between interacting particles. It means, that at constant distance between a nucleus and electron both first and second derivative are equal to zero. Therefore, in this case delay of a potential and radiation should be absent. So, not everyone accelerated moving electron radiates energy. Moved on a circle orbit electron should not radiate! Amazingly, how long a so essential error was unnoticed!

Huygens has prompted the solution of the second question. He has assumed: "Light arises due to pushes, which the moved particles of bodies put to particles of ether". Before appearance of a relation of de Broglie for lengths of waves this phrase of Huygens as though "hung in air". The relation of de Broglie should become the base to research of reasons of appearance of relation itself and appearance of photons as consequences of waves of de Broglie. However inference about indetermination of quantum mechanics made by Born, Heisenberg and Bohr, and also the refusal from ether made by Einstein, has withdrawn the physicists in the side from this problem.

Probably, it is necessary to assume that waves of de Broglie reflect the real "pulsing" process of movement of particles. Reason of which is the non-uniformity of delay of a potential. And photon is a segment of local (sharp directed) waves of an ether having in the beginning and in the end little bit different frequency of oscillation (width of a spectral line), that is connected to deceleration of velocity of electron at its transition from one steady orbit on another.

The pulsing movement of particles as the consequence of non-uniformity of delay of a potential can be by solution of one more of questions of a quantum mechanics: it is existence of steady discrete orbits of electron. Probably, the steady orbits are result of resonance cyclic and pulsing oscillations.

Thus, despite of multiple spells of orthodox relativists about the returning to classical physics, to an ether, to mechanical sights, to a causality and to notion of light as wave is not present and can not be, we should it make. Otherwise "it is necessary to refuse any hope ever and something to understand in physics"


The literature:

  1. A.I. Vejnik. A thermodynamics. A higher school, Minsk, 1968, page 434. In Russian.
  2. H. Huygens. The treatise about light. Lejden, 1703.
  3. J.C. Maxwell. The treatise about an electricity and magnetism, v. 1, 2, Oxford, 1873.
  4. I. Newton. Optician or treatise about reflections, refractions, bendings and colours of light. The London, 1706.
  5. S.I. Vavilov. An eye and sun. Science, M., 1976. In Russian.
  6. H. Hertz. About rather fast electrical oscillations. Ann. der Ph., b. 31, s. 421...448.
  7. H. Hertz. About electrodynamics waves in air and their reflection. Ann. der Ph., b. 34, s. 609...623.
  8. R. Feynman, R.B.Leigton, M. Sands The Feynman lectures on physics. V. 3...4, World, M.., 1976, page 391...398. In Russian.
  9. V.K. Semenchenko. The selected chapters of theoretical physics. Enlightenment, M., 1966, page 131. In Russian.
  10. A.I. Kitajgorodsky. Physics for everything, v. 3 (Electrons), Science, M., 1979. In Russian.

Is published earlier:

"Science of Kazakhstan", 5 (65), March 1...15, 1996.

Date of the publication:

April 13, 2000

Electronic version:

© NiT. Current publications, 1997

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