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Centenary ethereal war

Nikolay Noskov
Translated from Russian by Jury Sarychev

I am deeply grateful to the doctor of engineering science V.A. Atsjukovsky from Joukovski of the Moscow province. He has sent me the collection (under his edition) of basic works of the experimenters on an ethereal wind including the articles (till now not translated on Russian) with his personal translation. They have helped me at writing the given article.

The centenary ethereal war forced to physicists by the Lorentz and an Einstein and supporting them relativists is prolonged. Though from the moment of its appearance there were incontestable evidences of existence of ether. The culmination of this scrambling has come in 1977. American physicists, having measured speed of a solar System concerning so-called "relict" radiation [1], have proved rightness of Miller, which has calculated an approximate direction and speed of a solar System. He wrote, that it is more than 200 km/s and, maybe, 300 and 400... with the help of a drag coefficient of the Fresnel and interference measurements of an ethereal wind concerning a surface of the Earth with allowance for of partial dragging by it of an ether.

But even after that, relativists go on to persist in the fallacy. They have created such "brilliant" supercomposite mathematical formalism. They "have broken fire wood" in the irrepressible imaginations with waiving of common sense. And they came into that so far, that now it is inconvenient to them to return on the guilty Earth and to confess that they for noting so much time misted a head to mankind.

The supporters of a relativity theory, having taken key posts in control of science and actually being by an authority, taking, and having trapped all mass media (this status is saved now too), have made forgery in science concerning outcomes of experiments of Michelson, Morley and Miller. This forgery is intentionally converted into a title block as an indisputable truth for the schoolboy, student and scientist.

The problem of ether is far from harmless, it stands in "a solar plexus" of physics, and its incorrect solution puts a considerable loss to scientific views.

In the very first experiments (report 1881 [2]) on the interferometer Michelson has obtained an ethereal wind from 3 up to 3,5 km/s, that do not correspond to orbital velocity of the Earth 30 km/s, but it was the essential outcome.

Already in the report 1881 he has dared to object to Lorentz, the authority of which then was so great, that his each word in science was perceived as immutable truth: "...The experiment has shown, that the hypothesis of a fixed ether has appeared erroneous". But he had to consider the result in 3...3,5 km/s as an error of experiment (not without pressure from outside). He could be understood: the difficulty of the first experiment consists in its imperfection. The device was so responsive to hindrance, that "even the steps on sidewalk in hundred meters from an observatory cause full disappearance of interference fringes".

To 1887 Michelson together with Morley has finished a series of experiments on an improved interferometer [3]. It was located on an stone plate floating in Hydrargirum, and length of a beam was increased from 1 up to 11 m. In the conclusion of the report 1887 the authors have written: "...Expected displacement – 0,4 bands. The real displacement was less than 1/20, and probably it is less, than 1/40 bands, i.e. relative velocity of the Earth and ether, probably, are less than 1/6 orbital velocity of the Earth and certainly less than 1/4".

1/6...1/4 speed of the Earth on orbit means 5...7,5 km/s (!). That is even more, than in experiments 1881. And as Miller has written subsequently: "it purely differs from zero outcome, now so frequently assigned to this experiment by the authors of works on a relativity theory".

In addition to the report Michelson and Morley have set up advice to the experimenters, who will keep interference test: "...It is vain to attempt to solve the problem on motion of a solar System by observations of optical phenomena on surface of the Earth. But it is not impossible to find out relative movement by the vehicle, similar used in described experiments on mean altitude above sea level, for example, on top of the separately standing mountain. Probably, if the experiment some day will be conducted in similar conditions, the casing of the vehicle should be made from a glass or even miss".

From all subsequent experimenters only Miller has used Michelson and Morley's advice. He has obtained positive results on definition of an ethereal wind. Another scientists have wanted to prove the lack of ether and ethereal wind to confirm justice of a relativity theory; therefore they made screens from metals and did the experiments in brick buildings.

After 1887 the events have developed as follows. For explanation of "negative" outcomes of experiments of Michelson – Morley and experiments of Kaufmann with motion of fast electrons in a transversal magnetic field Lorentz [4] [5] has made a hypothesis about shortening of longitudinal linear dimensions of moving bodies and on its basis – idea of a general principal of relativity (see article "The general principle of relativity does not exist", "Science of Kazakhstan" #20, 1995). Lorentz and Poincare have discussed all aspects of relativity in printing in period from 1887 to 1905. But the unforeseen occasion happened here. Almost simultaneously there were published the completing work of Poincare [6] and Einstein's article "To an electrodynamics of moving bodies" [7] on this problem. Einstein's article was received to print for 25 days earlier. In this article the main postulate was not shortening of lengths of moving bodies, but persistence of velocity of light irrespective of motion of the receiver and, as a corollary, total refusal of existence of ether. There is no ether – there are no problems with an ethereal wind! But there is no also common sense, so far as it is impossible to reflect above problems: what is the light, how does the light correct the velocity concerning the receiver etc. In this case physics was transformed to a mathematical formalism, and invented postulates and prohibitions – in to the laws of the nature. The seizure of the initiative in physics by Einstein and his supporters was lightning, vigorous and total.

But the experimenters did not give up. D.C. Miller, the professor of Сase school of applied science, has started long wearisome scrambling with the relativity theory. Prof. Nassau, dr. Stremberg, prof. Morley, president of Institute Karpety in Washington Merriam, director of an observatory Gel and Adams, engineer Prof. Heff, dr. Langer, Prof. Martin, Shekland and many other helped him.

Miller in cooperation with Morley has constructed (1900...1904) interferometer (all design was advanced and carefully executed) which was fore times more responsive of used earlier. In 1904...1905 experiments in a basement of School of applied sciences in Cleveland have shown ethereal wind 3,5 km/s. Then interferometer was transferred on Euclidean heights, where obtained result was found 3 km/s.

In 1906 Prof. Morley has moved away from active work, and after prolonged interruption Miller has restored experiments in an observatory at Mount Wilson, not far from Pasadena in California at the altitude 6000 foots. In 1921...1925 about 5000 separate measurements in different time of day and night in four different seasons was made [8]. All these measurements, during which was checked up the effect of the every possible factors able to distort result, "have given a stable positive effect appropriate to an actual ethereal wind, as though it was stipulated by relative movement of the Earth and ether with speed about 10 km/s". This motion has determinate direction, which one Miller after the long analysis has presented as general motion of the Earth and Solar system "with speed 200 km/s or more, with apex in constellation of Dragon about a pole of an ecliptic with straight ascension 262° and inclination 65°. It is necessary to assume dragging of ether by the Earth to interpret this effect as an ethereal wind. Apparent relative movement in region of an observatory decreases from 200 km/s or more up to 10 km/s and the dragging of ether also displaces apparent azimuth approximately on 45° to northwest".

In the meantime analysis of experiments of Michelson and Morley was continued, which one were proclaimed by an Einstein and his followers as "negative", i.e. zero.

At first Prof. Hix [9] from University college of Sheffield in 1902 (and it before rise of special theory of relativity!) has established, that the result of experiments of Michelson and Morley was not neglectfully small and has paid attention to presence in it of effect of the first order. Then in1933 Miller [10] has made full research of these experiments: "...The full periodical curves were subjected to the analysis with the help of a mechanical harmonic analyzer, which one has determined a true value of the full periodical effect. It, having been compared to a corresponding speed concerning motion of the Earth and ether, has shown speed 8,8 km/s for midday observations and 8 km/s for evening". In Russia, where the positions of relativists were especially strong any critic of relativity theory was not admitted. Vavilov [11], the president AS USSR, having conducted researches of the basis of this theory, has stated a number of severe objections, which relativists have tried to not note. So, concerning experiments of Michelson and Morley he has written: "the Way of processing of results of experiments of Michelson is those, that any non-cycle displacement are eliminated. Meanwhile, these displacement were considerable".

The scrambling of Miller with relativists was unequal. The Lorentz, attached by idea of abbreviation of lengths of moving bodies, has not accepted any point of view. (It is enough to read his report [12] on conference 1927 on experiments of Michelson and Morley to be convinced in it. Therefore statement of relativists that the Lorentz as if has accepted their party is unfounded). But the supporters of an Einstein have taken an active position, attracting every possible hard – proved physical phenomena for the proof of his theory.

But most important was that, that the subsequent experimenters have not confirmed outcomes of Miller. The experiments of Miller are subjected an indiscriminate critic, while experiments of the subsequent experimenters, which one obtained zero outcomes, accepted without any criticism.

A heavy controversy under the theory of experiment lasts all this time since 1887 (this dispute is not completed now). Most surprising is that, that on the adopted theory of experiment depends its outcome. How was it possible to consider one experiments as correct, and other is not?!

Relativists have launched an intensive attack on a world public opinion of the scientists using an interlacing of fallacies of famous physicists on the theory of experiment, on theoretical problems of physics and, in this connection, scrambling of hypotheses of Fresnel – Stokes, Lorentz – Fresnel, Einstein – Lorentz, Hedric- Lorentz, Miller- Lorentz, Miller- Einstein etc. Sometimes they have distorted outcomes of experiments "a little" (as, for example, of Michelson). Sometimes they have kept silent about the obtained outcomes (as, for example, about outcomes of the Crimean radiolocation of moon). Sometimes they have used the facts as the proof, which one either are below errors of experiments, or can be explained within the framework of classic physics (such, as deviation of light rays near the Sun or abnormal displacement of perihelions of planets). Eventually relativists with the help of mass media have created a cult of a relativity theory and Einstein. Who was not the privately owned author of GTR though, but has been at the head of relativists in scrambling against physicists, holding on to positions of a classic mechanics and ether. Having been occupied with supercomposite mathematics, relativists have decided that they are inaccessible to critics.

But we see now, that the victory of relativists has appeared imaginary. After 70 years (1905...1976) of victorious procession of a relativism the conclusive evidences of rightness of Miller have appeared. With the help of an anisotropy of a background radiation physics have found [14], that the summary speed of a solar System makes up approximately 400 km/s with direction of motion almost at 90° to a plane of an ecliptic north up. Efimov and Shpitalnaja in the article "To a problem on motion of a solar System concerning a background radiation of the Universe" [13] justly assert, that "...To name a background radiation like relict, as now it is accepted, is wrongful..."

On my view, it is necessary to put a point in this centenary dispute, to restore historical and scientific justice, to adjudge posthumously the Nobel Prize on physics to Miller, who has deserved it by the feat in science.

Post scriptum. Probably, anybody from the researchers of an ethereal wind did not pay attention to the fact, that a Milky Way is oriented from a north on the south with small deviation depending on time of year. It means, that the solar System by the plane moves either on the south, or north up, as Miller has found out in the experiments on an ethereal wind. It was possible also to suspect, that the speed of the Earth around of the Sun is much less, than speed of a solar System around of center of a Galaxy, even on a ratio of masses and sizes. This fact was confirmed by measuring of an anisotropy of a background radiation.

 

The literature:

  1. B. Kori, D. Ulkinson, G. Smit and others. Experiments on an anisotropy of a background radiation. In: G. De Vaucoulers. A. J., 58, s. 30, 1958.
  2. A.A. Michelson. Relative movement of the Earth and a light carrying ether. Amer. J. Phys., 1881, 22, p. 120...129.
  3. A.A. Michelson, E.W. Morley. About relative movement of the Earth in a light carrying ether. Amer. J. Sci., 1887, 34, p. 333...345.
  4. H.A. Lorentz. Michelson's interference experiment. From the book "Versuch einer Theorie der elektrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Korpern". Leiden, 1895, paragraphs 89...92.
  5. H.A. Lorentz. Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity, smaller velocity of light. Proc Acad., Amsterdam, 1904, v 6, p 809.
  6. A. Poincare. About dynamics of an electron. Rendiconti del Circolo Matematico di Palermo, 1906 (was received in printing July 23 1905) v. XXI, p. 129
  7. A. Einstein. To an electrodynamics of a moving body. Ann. d. Phys., 1905 (the article has acted in printing June 30 1905), b. 17, s. 89.
  8. D.C. Miller. An ethereal wind. The report read in the Washington Academy of sciences. Science, 1926, v. LXII, No. 1635.
  9. W. M. Hicks. Phil. Mag., v. 3, #6, 9, p. 256, 555, 1902. In: D.C. Miller. Experiment on an ethereal wind and definition of absolute motion of the Earth. 1933.
  10. D.C. Miller. Experiment on an ethereal wind and definition of absolute motion of the Earth. 1933.
  11. S.I. Vavilov. The experimental basis of a relativity theory. Collection, V. IV, edition AC USSR, 1956, page 31...33. In Russian.
  12. H.A. Lorentz. The report on conference on experiment of Michelson – Morley, holding at an observatory in Mount Wilson, Pasadena, Californium, February 4 and 5, 1927.
  13. A.A. Efimov, A.A. Scpitalnaja. To a problem on motion of a solar System concerning a background radiation of the Universe. In collection transactions S-P AC of company "the Nature and we" Problems of space and time in modern natural sciences. S-P, 1991. In Russian.

Is published earlier:

"Science of Kazakhstan", 1 (105), November 1...15, 1997.

Date of the publication:

May 29, 2000

Electronic version:

© NiT. Current publications, 1997

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