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Concepts of the general theory of information

Stanislav YANKOVSKY

Chapter 1. General notion of information

Chapter 2. Information evolution

3. Information properties and laws of its conversion

A single act of object information interaction with environment has three successive stages. The first stage is reception of information codes. The second stage consists in interpretation of these codes. The third stage consists in realization of the information received as a result of the first two stages. Realization of information may consist in a combination of symmetrical and asymmetrical (informative and non-informative) interactions with environment and changes in an object internal condition.

All the three staged have some concrete contents conditioned by object properties covering its physical abilities and purposes of its existence. The notion "object purposes" is introduced as a general directivity of object actions for satisfying its needs. Object needs are understood in a most general sense. They can be defined as what prevents object existence. A long-term dissatisfaction of needs (more often they say "discontent") leads to terminating existence of an object as such. Complete absence of needs results in termination of any actions of an object. Something that manifests itself in nothing seems as if it does not exist or at least it cannot be an object (the "thing for others") any more.

Thus, object needs change permanently and object purposes that its actions are aimed at change, respectively. The range of their change is limited by object physical abilities in terms of construction of its actions.

Structure of object purposes depends on its own structure and may be very simple or very complicated. Complicated structures represent a hierarchy wherein achieving purposes of lower level (sub-purposes) results in achieving purposes of higher levels. These, in their turn, can be sub-purposes of even much higher levels. The existing purposes determine internal need for object actions that are realized as the object receives information interpreted by it as an available possibility for achieving an expedient result. We do not consider the notion of a final purpose (or sense of life).

This is not already related to studying information processes and, therefore, is not our subject. To us, it is important to take into account only that the information is perceived and realized by an object proceeding from a set of its current purposes. Causes of their existence are not a significant factor to us.

The body of information to be received is related to purposes for which it is received and potentialities to realize them for achieving these purposes. At that, one of the results of this information realization may be a change in the interpretation apparatus. This determines the effect of information body received earlier on the information body to be received later on.

The body of information received by an object is defined as an uncertainty elimination measure for choosing actions leading to achievement of its purposes.

If energy determines a possibility to perform actions them information determines a possibility for expedient choice of these actions. The body of information can be related but to the totality of object purposes of which the achievement degree changes as a result of the information realization.

In so doing, the object may approach achievement of a corresponding purpose or may retire from it (e.g. in case a misinformation received is realized). So, the body of information received may be both a positive value and a negative value.

To continue, we shall be considering the process of an object information interaction with environment at each of the three stages. At that, we shall always keep in mind their inter-correlation via purposes available with an object.

3.1. Reception of information codes

Information codes are received by an object through its symmetrical interactions with environment, i.e. through exchanging matter and energy on the basis of which information codes are, strictly speaking, transmitted. Origination, as such, of information codes sent by external objects may be purposeful or of a background character. The purposeful generation of information codes originates from actions of an object sending them. It is related to its purposes; approaching them is provided by how the codes sent by it will be interpreted, and how information had been received will be realized by other objects. The background generation runs as a side consequence of an object functioning during which it enters into symmetrical interactions with other objects.

Reception of some information codes causes changing of object condition consistent with those symmetrical interactions (exchange by matter and energy) that conditioned the process of information code transmission.

New object condition parameters occurring in this case can be abstracted from the cause by which they were induced and called the data received. It is these data that will participate later on in information processes initiated in the object via reception of this group of information codes from outside.

Data are a functional worth of information codes for actions of the apparatus of their interpretation abstracted from the nature of symmetrical interactions being the basis for transmitting these codes.

There are one more important point distinguishing the notions of information codes and information data. Symmetrical interactions are the code the carriers, in which an object receiving them participates as the "thing for others". Their origination does not depend on the receiving object. In this respect, they are of objective nature. Data, on the contrary, participate in processes inside an object and their properties refer to those of its properties that define it as the "thing in itself". In other words, the nature of data completely dependents but on the properties of the object itself. In this sense, data have a subjective nature. Thus, the transition from external information codes to internal data is a transition from objective into subjective. To explain the above in more detail one can adduce an example as follows.

Pete gave an apple to Mary. In this case, he made such action aiming at displaying his good attitude to her. He has used the apple as a carrier of an information code that, as he had accounted for, would be interpreted by Mary in a manner favorable to him. Objectively, that was the case.

Now the matter depends on Mary. But Mary has a strong allergy to apples and some unpleasant filling occurs with her. This is how objective information codes were changed into subjective data. On the basis of these data, the information that Mary has perceived was quite different from what Pete had tried to transmit to her. Such was termination of their good relations.

Symmetrical interactions which an object takes part in are not always perceived by it as information codes. If object used an immediate result of such interaction for subsequent control of its condition change it means that a stage of information interpretation and its realization has taken place. At that, one can say that an object received information codes. As to complex objects, very often it is not so easy to define which event is carrying information codes to them and which one does not.

Many complex objects are able to control selection of information codes from symmetrical interactions at the level of receptors already. Here, an object installs primary information filters working at the stage of converting information codes into data. From the whole complex of symmetrical interactions, these filters select but those significantly informative for an object. A simplest example of a dynamical structure of primary information filters is observed with people living close to a railway. The trains passing by produce strong sound waves causing eardrum oscillations. At first, people pay attention to it perceiving information on a train movement. Later on, this information is saved in their memory in a generalized form on that trains move permanently but it concerns them very little. Eardrums keep oscillating due to sound waves produced by trains but no data on information reception is generated. The people simply do not hear trains when in their houses although they do not lose ability to perceive sound waves of different origin or to hear the same trains under different conditions. Everybody can find out a lot of similar examples in his everyday practice and also opposite examples of generating abilities with receptors to receive information codes they were unable to receive in the past.

It is worth noting here that information filters act in a complex manner at all stages of information processing. Their designation is related not only with selection of information facilitating achievement of object purposes but also with the lack of receptivity with respect to the information that the object is simply unable to process and realize.

3.2. Information interpretation

Data received from information codes are interpreted by object. What does it mean? First of all, their significance to a given object is estimated. The data values are defined by comparing them with the complex of object purposes and by separating those of them that the object can approach by realizing the information eventually obtained. To do that, an object should have a structure of current purposes to be formed by the beginning of data processing.

This structure can be represented by a multi-level complex of components of which everyone is consistent with a need for an object to achieve any single purpose. Relations among components are determined by that achievement of some purposes is dependent upon achieving others. Every component is associated with a set of object possible actions that affects achievement of a corresponding purpose and with character of the data capable to provide it with information facilitating selection of expedient actions. The purpose structure may have a character partially static and partially dynamic depending on properties of the object proper. This concerns composition of components, their internal contents and relations among them. This structure can be called memory of object purposes.

Data not corresponding with any of object purposes do not bring information to it and are, therefore, lost. They bring the object back to the state it was in prior to receiving these data. Purposeless use of data means a distortion in purposefulness of object functioning and if such distortions become significant it leads to termination of its existence.

The second step after estimation of data significance for an object is either a direct perception of the data as some information and their unconditioned realization (reflex arc), or they are saved in memory components related to object purposes had been determined at a previous step. A set of the data saved previously and newly coming data related to the purpose of their saving is estimated for sufficiency of their totality to make choice of object actions bringing it closer to a corresponding purpose. The estimation process may be of different nature depending on object properties but it is based on comparing of an available complex of data with information patterns of actions constructed previously for a given purpose. Information patterns of object actions may be inherent (static) or constructed as a result of previous acts of information interactions (dynamic).

Information patterns of actions ensure comparing characteristics of data sets, actions and results of approaching a purpose. In other words, they are used for estimating a possible result of actions aimed at achieving a corresponding purpose if certain data are available. Ability to construct dynamic patterns is determined by availability with an object of a possibility to change some components of its memory according to which of its actions led to what results in the presence of what information.

Here we come close to that at a certain development level of objects, the properties of information simulation of their interactions with environment used for making choice of behavior most expedient for them becomes inherent to the objects. Thus, it is lawful to speak of an information model of external environment available inside an object and its interaction with environment.

Information model of object environment is a structured totality of three components:
1. Information perceived by an object and remembered in the form of data,
2. Information patterns of object actions,
3. Methods of comparing the first two components in accordance with a set of object purposes.

Concrete ways to realize this model with different objects may have different component basis but from the conceptual standpoint they are constructed and act in accordance with general principles resulting from their common designation and generality of information process properties in the nature. Let us try now to describe a conceptual logic system of the model operation.

The environment information model (EIM) has a complex structure determined, first of all, by the structure of object purposes.

Fig. 1. A fragment of the environment information model

Fig. 1 shows, in a simplified form, a fragment of EIM. Ovals highlight its components (nodes) of which everyone consists of three components. Of these: Cij – a purpose on the basis of which the component is formed; Aij – a set of information patterns for actions relevant to this purpose; Dij – data on which the choice of actions for achieving this purpose is based. The straight double arrows stand for admission of primary data generated by receptors from information codes. The straight single arrows stand for influence of achieving some purposes upon achieving others. In addition to that, they denote data transmission between nodes. Among these data are also present those that represent current degree of purpose achievement.

Every EIM mode memorizes but the data possible to compare with action patterns (i.e. can be used for choosing purposeful actions). Deflected double arrows stand for generation of control information, initiating object actions to achieve a corresponding purpose. Their choice is based on comparing data and action patterns associated with this purpose. Choice of actions may have different character. This may be a choice of actions leading directly to achieving purpose or actions aimed at receiving missing data, without them no acceptable result of approaching a purpose can be achieved.

In this case, we consider activation of actions aimed at achieving a sub-purpose for receiving information necessary to achieve a higher purpose. Besides, initialization of actions leading to changing EIM structure proper is possible. Undoubtedly, the structure changes with complex objects and these changes may follow from nothing else but results of its own functioning. The changes may concern composition of EIM components, their relations and structure of components constituting them. It is necessary for the kind of these structures to be considered in more detail.

3.3. Structure of EIM data components

No interactions wherein an object takes part can be considered separately from one another. These interactions represent a portion of phenomena occurring in this medium. The medium is closed and every phenomenon occurring in it exerts different influence on other phenomena. Everything in our world is interrelated, however, in order to reflect all relations existing in it one would need to create, by whatever means, another system as complicated as this world. From objective point of view, it becomes necessary to use simplifications for describing these interactions. Such simplifications are made, first of all, by introducing the notions of cause-effect and integrant-integer relations.

Cause-effect relations among phenomena stand for that one of them takes place when and but when a certain set of other phenomena takes place. ("Takes" place proper rather than "had taken" place because the past produces influence on the future through the present alone). At that, one phenomenon may be involved in a set of causes of different phenomena without having cause-effect relations. Integrant-integer relations are introduced to denote fractionation of one phenomenon into a complex of phenomena of which everyone, as such, may be considered as self-dependent. In this case, every separate phenomenon may be an integrant of different complexes without having integrant-integer relations. Separate phenomena involved as integrants into an integral phenomenon may have mutual coordination relations (in particular, control-subordination) among themselves. It is these relations that allow considering their complex as an integral phenomenon.

The notions of cause-effect and integrant-integer relations actually represent notions of real relations between phenomena. When the former are used it implies availability of a sequence in occurring of a consequent event in some time interval after causal events. Nevertheless, both types of events can be considered jointly as integrants of a common phenomenon extended in time.

As the notion of integrant-integer relation is used it usually implies space distribution of particular phenomena constituting an entire event singled out in the same space. Meanwhile, availability of particular phenomena and their interactions among themselves may be considered as causes resulting in existence of an entire phenomenon as a consequence. Thus, the use of different types of integrant-integer and cause-effect relations is determined by what factor dominates in the tasks they are used for: space or time.

An object, wile perceiving information from environment through its interaction with it, should arrange its responding actions with regard to the environment so that they should be consistent, in an objective manner (independently from the object), with a structure of events existing in the environment. Otherwise, these interactions will be chaotic and, therefore, will not lead to achieving object purposes. Choosing purposeful actions requires that a data structure through which an environment condition is reflected in its EIM should be consistent, to an extent sufficient to its purposes, with a stricture of events available in the environment. In this case alone, it can get an adequate estimate of consequences of its possible actions necessary for choosing the most expedient of them.

Phenomenon relations (of both integrant-integer and cause-effect types) should be reflected in its EIM through relations among data groups corresponding to fragments of information on these phenomena. For the object, the data groups, proper, is a reflection of current condition of an event constructed on the basis of reception of information codes from it. If one event, as such, being a component of another one also incorporates a complex of phenomena then the data on its condition may, in their turn, incorporate connected groups of data on individual events. Thus, data may have different level of generality. A minimal level of generality is determined by object sensitivity, i.e. its ability to distinguish information codes received by it with regard to their relevance to different events.

Sensitivity of an object depends on properties of its receptors or, more exactly, their ability to generate essentially different data while receiving different information codes. A maximal level of generality depends already on properties of EIM components, possibilities of transmitting data between them and possibilities of changing composition of components as well as their relations. Both minimal and maximal levels of data generality are constructed by an object proceeding from the principle of expediency for their use as generating object's actions under conditions of the phenomena running.

If one phenomenon is perceived by an object as a portion of other phenomena not consisting with each other, it then means that the data group consistent with this phenomenon is simultaneously involved into different groups of data corresponding to more general phenomena. Relations of EIM components fix such involvement. Position of individual phenomenon in integral phenomenon is reflected in its data group by a separate sub-group, which can be called relation coloration. Data of relation coloration are relatively independent from data relevant to individual phenomenon and are determined by how an object perceives an integral phenomenon as a whole.

Data on individual phenomena are indirectly related among themselves via their relations with integral phenomenon. Besides, particular phenomena may have coordinating relations between each other. In this case, establishment of associative (non-hierarchic) relations among groups of data relevant to these phenomena can be used in EIM. It is natural that this may occur provided reflection of such relations is expedient for an object. Associative relations may have their own coloration as well.

3.4. Component structure of EIM action patterns

Data are involved into EIM so that they are used by it for choosing purposeful actions rather than to simply fill it. Expediency of deferent actions can be estimated as preliminary but on the basis of data on cause-effect relations of phenomena. Expediency of object actions is directly related with what consequences of these actions will be. From here on, one can assert that the component structure of action patterns of an object in its EIM should be consistent with the structure of phenomenon cause-effect relations in the object environment. The degree of this consistency should be such as that necessary for an object to organize actions for achieving its purposes. It is quite natural that no complete consistency can exist but a process of increasing the degree of consistency that allows ensuring expediency of object behavior may occur.

For the purpose of determining whether a consequence is available or is coming, it is necessary to estimate if a complex of its causes is available. These estimates can be expressed in a qualitative way such as "little", "sufficient", "possible", "unknown" etc. Complex of causes may also cover actions of an object, proper, which it has already implemented or is going to implement for achieving its purposes. Just these actions in combination with external phenomena either lead or do not lead to manifesting a consequence of which availability exerts influence on achieving object purposes.

Action patterns related to any elementary purpose can be presented in the form of flat matrixes. Rows of these matrixes are consistent with object possible actions. Columns correspond to estimates of a current situation by the data available on it. At intersection points of columns and rows there are expediency estimates of every possible action under conditions of possible estimates of a concrete situation. Situation estimate is made simultaneously with admission of data on it. Situation estimate is made for the purposes of which the achievement may be affected by this situation.

Data-to-purposes references, although not final, should be available from the very beginning. It is purpose references that data processing begins with. In accordance with every purpose, which the data are referenced to, they are given an estimate to be used for choosing most expedient actions (based on application of these estimates in appropriate patterns), including actions related to further application of these data.

The data estimation function may be fixed or may change depending on action results actually obtained and also to what extent the actions chosen facilitate an object to approach its purposes. Adjustment of estimate function is based on reception of new data related to an actual result of object actions and its comparing with an expected one.

The primary reference and estimation of data groups are made simultaneously with their admission. This is where from the process of their movement and processing begins in EIM. As new data come to EIM node, all data are subjected to integral estimation for this node. It is this estimate superimposed over action information patterns that determines the choice of the most expedient of them. If an EIM node is subordinated to other nodes, a generalized estimate of its data new condition should then come to higher nodes. At that, a generalized estimate for every higher node depends on coloration of relation with this node and represents a new data portion referenced to this node. In every higher node, an integral estimate of all its data and choice of actions for its patterns are performed, respectively. Thus, reception of information codes induces a flow of data to EIM of an object and their distribution over its nodes. Processing of this flow against action patterns of the nodes participating in it results in a complex realization of the received information together with the information fixed in these nodes earlier.

3.5. Information realization

Reception and interpretation of information codes by an object bring it to a need of performing some complex of actions expedient for it in current situation. This complex consists of changes in parameters of object inner condition (interactions of its components) and changes in its external manifestations (interactions with environment objects). The principle of expediency of action organization incorporates the principle of timely implementation of every action in separate and coordination of them for time in a complex manner. To this end, it is necessary for an object to monitor the results of its actions or, in other words, to receive information occurring as a result of implementing every stage of these action, and to realize it at subsequent stages. Termination of every stage of information realization brings an object to the beginning of a new act of information interaction.

Object activities consist of continuous succession of informative and non-informative interactions with environment. This chain begins with coming into being of an object and terminates with termination of its existence. Each action in this chain should necessarily run in real time scale, i.e. from the instance of information reception up to its realization there should pass some period of time during which situation will not change to the extent that actions undertaken turn out inadequate to it. The time scale during which information is processed may be different for its different types and corresponds to the expediency principle of its realization. Ensuring of information processing rate depends, to a high extent, on organization of data distribution in its EIM and organization of access to their groups needed for them and used for choosing actions expedient at a given moment.

3.6. Data navigation in EIM structure

Flow of data in EIM and their distribution over its nodes are, first of all, oriented in the direction of preparing their use in organization of a choice to be made by an object for taking actions leading to achievement of its purposes. Every new portion of data should get such a position in EIM wherein its processing for a corresponding purpose will lead to expedient realization of the information received. Distribution of data in conformity with their designation implies defining for them signs of their references to some object purposes or others and references to concrete EIM nodes, respectively.

Determination of data references already begins with receptors by which their flow is generated on receiving information codes. Receptors may be specialized in terms of sending data related to but a single purpose of their use and the matter of data reference is then already solved completely at their level. Such receptors, namely, dominate with simplest organisms. As objects and, respectively, their information interactions with environment become more complicated, the share of universal receptors receiving information codes and generating data of multi-purpose designation gets higher. Specification of data references coming from universal receptors is already realized in EIM, proper, although, a preliminary range of references may be established by receptors. For the purpose of establishing data references at a lower level of EIM there should exist filters which specify their references to purposes of their use on the basis of certain characteristics of data.

The same filters sift out the data of which designation cannot be defined or is estimated as useless. Filters may be static (inherent) or dynamic (adjusted in the course of object functioning). Filters represent nodes of EIM for they have all the three components inherent to its nodes. They have purposeful designation, data under temporary storing and action patterns with the help of which further flow of data is generated and directed.

Adjustment of nodes-filters is related to determination of such data characteristics, which enable to establish their relevance to different groups of environment phenomena and, respectively, relevance to object purposes of which the above groups affect achievement. At the initial stage of functioning of an object, adjustment of its EIM filters may have a chaotic character based on casual changes in algorithms. Those of casual algorithms of which the use becomes most useful for achieving object purposes are gradually fixed. Something like a process of algorithm evolution in the course of which new more expedient algorithms come into being on the basis of previous ones is going on little by little. Disappearance of inadequate algorithms of data references is provided by ability of memory to clear up or, in other words, to forget.

The EIM structure may have a polyhierarchic appearance determined by dividing object purposes into sub-purposes and by multiple meaning of subordination of sub-purposes to purposes of higher level. Structure of EIM data components also has a polyhierarchic appearance owing to involvement of data on individual phenomena into groups of data on more common phenomena. Both these structures are consistent with each other because higher purposes of an object are related to interaction with more common phenomena and decomposition of these purposes leads to purposes related to interactions with individual phenomena.

In the course of evolution development of objects and parallel development of their sociums, specialized means for their information interactions, i.e. languages, became available and started developing. A language starts manifesting itself when objects get a possibility to generate successions of information codes corresponding to various phenomena and transmit these codes to other objects being able to interpret them as information related to corresponding phenomena. Every component of a language is visualized as a combination of certain codes and correlate with a certain single phenomenon.

Succession of such combinations generated according to certain rules already correlates with relations between phenomena. Thus, structure of a language used by socium members for their information interactions is consistent with a structure of phenomena, which individual members and their socium as a whole interact with. Language is structured as much as the coordinated interaction of socium members is structured with phenomena of their environment. From objective standpoint, different sociums consisting of objects of similar types and dealing with monotypic phenomena of environment have similar structures of their languages and vice versa.

EIM filter-nodes of the objects involved into one socium are given the same adjustment of algorithms for determining consistency of the data obtained from language information codes, with different phenomena and their purposes, respectively. This enables socium members to acquire, in a mediate way, the information they need via interaction with other members of socium rather than from direct interaction with environment phenomena. In principle, such mediate reception of information simplifies and extends possibilities for objects to achieve their purposes under conditions when direct reception of information is hampered or impossible. The EIM adjustment related to interpretation of language information codes may be static like with ants or dynamic like with higher animals. Abilities for dynamic adjustment of language interpretation with animals are determined by degree of neuron reticula development with their organisms.

Language is even more prominent with the objects being able to implement EIM dynamic adjustment. Language exerts influence by its structure on structure formation of EIM, proper. Thus, language affects the structure of object information processing and forms the structure of what is, while in a developed form, called thinking.

In every language component or their combinations there is already their reference to complexes of phenomena denoted by them and, consequently, to purposes of the objects related to interaction with these phenomena as well. Such initial reference of information codes simplifies navigation of a data flow in EIM occurring in the course of their reception. This, in its turn, simplifies the stage of information realization as objects achieve their purposes.

Relevance of data groups to different object purposes and to different nodes of its EIM, respectively, may have different degree of consistency depending on their potential usefulness for achieving a corresponding purpose. Fixation a data-to-node consistency degree estimate and its possible further re-estimation related to their use enables, on the one hand, to avoid immediate loss of data of which designation is not yet determined. On the other hand, it enables to single out the data possible for clearing out from memory, if overloaded, with least losses for an object.

The degree of data-with-EIM node consistency determines the degree of need for fixing them in this node. Estimation of a consistency degree provides operation a data filter, already functional rather than primary, operating on the basis of checking data usefulness as the information they stand for is realized. It should be pointed out that estimate of the data group-with-EIM node consistency degree does not coincide with estimates of their completeness and accuracy. These data already pertain to all data on a node and depend on to what extent their complete set is sufficient for correct choice of purposeful actions. Estimate of a degree of consistency with a node is determined from to what extent a data group under consideration can be used at all while actions providing achievement of purposes related to this node are chosen against information patterns.

Data enter into EIM node in a successive order whereas for choosing actions they are used jointly. In the course of processing there may occur a situation when according to information patterns it is necessary to make a simultaneous choice of actions incompatible with each other. Such a situation may mean either availability of contradictions among separate data groups or availability of potentialities equally worth for choosing different actions. Contradiction in data may occur as a consequence of insufficient adequacy of action patterns available for a corresponding purpose. In this case, the contradiction can be eliminated through adjustment of these patterns.

Misinformation received by an object or malfunction of receptors may be another cause of contradiction. Elimination of such contradictions may occur in the course of admission of new data proving certainty of some data groups and uncertainty of others. More complicated algorithms of eliminating data contradictions related to their complex comparing for all EIM nodes are also possible. Maintenance of EIM logic integrity determined as absence of contradictions in its data is a mandatory condition for object purposeful functioning.

Conclusion

The objects combined into a socium interact with environment phenomena of which a substantial portion takes place inside socium. Partly, every object interacts with phenomena being external with respect to socium. In a similar manner, sociums also interact with environment phenomena basically belonging to higher level sociums they are involved in. A socium exists provided the purposes of its members are compatible and if it has a possibility to organize mutual support for achieving purposes of its members.

Socium should have a complex of its own purposes to ensure a possibility for its existence. At that, their achievement can be supported but through actions of objects involved into it. To this end, some portion of object own purposes should constitute sub-purposes of different socium purposes. One can note that totality of those object purposes, which support achievement of one socium purpose, is related to it in a cause-effect ratio. Achievement of this object purpose totality results in achievement of a socium purpose. At the same time, objects, proper, are related to a socium purpose as integrant-integer ratio whereas their interaction between each other represent correlating relations in this socium.

In this case, the same objects may be involved in different sociums simultaneously. Every object has its own EIM and a similar one is also available with their socium as a self-dependent object. Every node of its EIM is constructed on the basis of distributed-in-space carriers. These are its objects and information processing means used by them. In accordance with the above, information models of object environment represent a basis that a socium EIM is constructed on. The latter does not coincide with a simple association of the former ones and has its own components belonging to no one of socium members. In exactly the same way, every member of a socium has its own EIM components irrelevant to socium proper.

It is possible to say that in contrast to the object EIM structure that we described with 2D flat diagram, the EIM structure of their socium needs to be described with 3D volumetric model. However, the number of dimensions of an EIM model is a conventional thing, the only absolute thing is increase in the number of dimensions required to go from one to another. Should one start describing EIM of a socium with description of EIM of the cells constituting its organism, the number of dimensions of a constructed diagram will get a great deal higher.

Socium is created through interaction of objects involved into it and these namely are the only its builders. Until recently (to a scale of life existence on Earth), the process of socium construction was of a character very much similar to the character of the organism natural selection process. By way of casual variations and extinction of false variants there were found the forms of object interaction organization so that, one the hand, they should be of mutual advantage and, on the other hand, provide stable existence of their association in the form of a socium. Information interaction of socium members is a basis of any socium existence. Without this, organization of their joint activities would simply be impossible.

Prior to occurrence of human being and his sociums, potentialities of information interaction inside a socium were always limited by organic abilities of its members. In the course of nature evolution there appeared far more complicated organisms with more powerful potentialities of information interactions. Evolution of their sociums was going on strictly parallel to it. On human being coming into existing, there has occurred a great qualitative advance in leisurely evolution of nature. This is related to speaking abilities of a human being organism. Developed ability for generating and selective perception of a large spectrum of sound waves and their modulations provided human being with a powerful means for receiving and transmission of information codes. Gradual learning to master this means expressed in development of languages for communication has taken about 150 thousand years.

For about the same time, functional abilities of a human being organism have not been changing substantially but, in turn, have inevitably been getting more complicated and functions of human being social formations have been developing as well. Language as a basis for information interaction of people not merely provided their sociums with a possibility of simple existence but its development has created a basis for evolution of human sociums. For the first time in the history of life, evolution of social formations was no more dependent on evolution of organisms constituting them and development of information interaction means became its pivot.

We shall not be considering here in detail the history of means used by people for information transmission and processing that have arisen on the basis of language intercourse forms. These means were developing from petroglyphs to computers and space communication. We shall merely note that up till now the process of their development was of a natural selection character and it was not before very recently that it has started acquiring a purposeful character. However, until now there is a shortage in a general theory determining trends in developing means for work with information as well as their position in organization of a common complex of information interactions in social formations constituted by people.

It was desirable that this paper shows, first of all, the need and potentiality for developing a general theory of information that would be able to become a methodological foundation for purposeful creation of new information technologies. Our hope is that general principles of information movement that the EIM description is based on may turn out to be a principle basis for developing such a theory.

 

Chapter 1. General notion of information

 

References:

  1. Norbert Wiener, "Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine", MIT Press 1948, 1961.
  2. V.M. Lachinov, A.O. Polyakov "Informodynamics, or Way to World of Open Systems", 2nd ed., SPb., 1999 (Russian).
  3. V.I. Korogodin "Information and Phenomenon of Life", Pouschino, 1991 (Russian).
  4. V.G. Red'ko. "Lectures on Evolution Cybernetics" (Russian).
  5. V.S. Repin. "Molecular Information: Myth or Reality" (Russian).
  6. V.S. Repin "Life Begins from 350 Genes".
  7. V.F. Tourchin. "The Phenomenon of Science", Columbia University Press New York, 1977.

About the author:

Stanislav Janovich Jankovsky, engineer-mathematician
e-mail: stas@nt.iac-entek.ru

Date of the publication:

February 27, 2001

Electronic version:

© NiT. Current publications, 1997