
Modern theories of space and time consider time as a fourth dimension which is added to the three spatial ones, and all these dimensions are somehow interconnected. However, the theories do not explain the physical meaning of time and its connection with space. If time is a dimenson, then why it is impossible to move in time in any direction and with any speed? Time is uninterrupted and it can be measured only with regard to a chosen starting point. It is impossible to return to this starting point as well as it is impossible to move ahead of the current moment of time. We know only some of the properties of time. But nobody knows to what extent these properties are objective and unchanging and how time influences processes which take place in our universe. This paper tries to give another approach to the notion of time and to explain its physical meaning. At the same time the existing laws which describeknown processes of the universe are not denied. Clock stroke rate at a specific point in space implies the existence of time.
The main time properties are: duration, inimitability and irreversibility. It is also known, that clock stoke rate at different points of space are not the same and depends on the amount of nearby gravitational mass where the time measurement is done and on the distance to it. Besides, we can see time in practically all equations which describe any motion or process as a factor. This is all we know about time.
To understand the physical meaning of time, we need to answer the following questions:
Why is time uninterrupted and irreversible?
What connection is there between time and space?
Why does the flow of time tend to slow down near gravitational masses and energetic processes? (Any energetic process may be expressed through mass or vice versa: E = mc^{2}).
Among known physical phenomena and processes, the physical fields which cause four types of fundamental interconnections in our universe can be characterized by uninterruption and irreversibility for nonchanging conditions. If an analogy is drawn, it will be possible to propose the following hypothesis:
Time is the value, which characterizes the influence of physical field in our universe.
Such a kind of field can be called a chronofield. Clock stroke rate is the value, which characterizes the intensity of the chronofield – H_{t} ~ 1/t, i.e. the quicker the clock stroke rate, the greater the intensity of the chronofield.
Experimental data show, that the further the gravitational mass is, the clock stroke rate becomes quicker. Consequently, it's possible to assume that when moving off from a gravitational mass and energetic processes don't take place, the intensity of chronofield will be the highest. I.e. in vacuum when all physical fields and substances are absent, chronofield energy density will be the maximum. (Because chronofield encloses all of the universe, there is a sense to mention only the density of its energy at the specific point of space).
To determine the maximum density of chronofield energy, let's take the following postulate as a basis:
Energy of any kind of matter in the universe is produced by the energy of the chronofield.
So, any kind of energy which is processed of potential energy or kinetic energy, and also any process of energy emission or absorption changes the energy of the chronofield by a corresponding amount, which is expressed by the slowing down of clock stroke rate. If the density of matter at any point of space is equal to the density of the chronofield, the clock stroke rate will be equal to infinity, i.e. the clock will stop and the intensity of the chronofield will be equal to zero. According to existing theories of universe formation, such a phenomenon can take place when a black hole is formed. From the condition of black hole formation its gravitational radius is equal to:
r_{g} = 2GM / c^{2}.
where G is the gravitational constant; M is the black hole mass; c is the velocity of light in vacuum.
The density of the chronofield energy ε_{t} will be equal to the density of the black hole energy:
If we accept, that the minimum mass, which forms the black hole, comprises two or three Solar masses, the chronofield energy density will be ε_{t} ~ 10^{45} GeV/m^{3}.
The influence of gravitational masses on the intensity of the chronofield is wellknown. To study the influence of an energetic process on the chronofield the following experiment can be conducted. It's necessary to take clocks (for example, 2 atomic frequency standards) whose stroke rates are synchronized. Then, to conduct an energetic process near one of the clocks, which will lead to a slowing down of its stroke rate.
As a remark, it is necessary to mention, that the idea of a «creation field» in the universe has been proposed by P. Jordan. The energy of this field transforms into the energy and mass of elementary particles in the course of time.
And now let us try to see if there is a connection between chronofield and space which is free from any substance.
Let us consider the wellknown expression for interval:
dS^{2} = – (cdt)^{2} + dX^{2} + dY^{2} + dZ^{2}.
Let us take dS^{2} = 0 and accomplish the expression for interval with regard to the constant factor which is the speed of light in vacuum с:
c^{2} = (dX^{2} + dY^{2} + dZ^{2}) / dt^{2}.
Because the clock stroke is uninterrupted we can conclude that to provide a constant value to the speed of light, each increase of time should correspond to an increase of some spatial coordinate. Or, in other words, in the course of time the uniform expansion of space occurs in such a way that the ratio of spatial expansion to the corresponding increase of time is always constant and equals the speed of light.
Consequently, we can assume, that the main function of chronofield is to expand the space of our universe. An indirect confirmation of such expansion is the law of Hubble: galaxies are moving away from each other with speeds which are proportional to the distances between them. This phenomenon is connected with the fact, that galaxies don't run away from each other, but increase the distance between them. However, galaxies have their proper velocities with respect to expanding space. It may lead to rapprochement of galaxies, if their total velocity exceeds the velocity of space expansion. For the same reason, Hubble's constant varies within limits of 50...100 km/s megaparsec.
If the assumption concerning chronofield and its influence on the universe is true, there comes the question: from which starting point and to where is our universe expanding, i.e. from where does threedimensional space originate and to where is it expanding?
Among all known constants of the universe it is possible to point out two absolute values: the speed of light in vacuum and the absolute zero of temperatures according to Kelvin. According to the existing laws of nature, matter cannot exist at temperatures below absolute zero or move with a speed greater than the speed of light. These two absolute values are the boundaries of our universe. We can assume that space starts expanding from a point which is below absolute zero to the point, where matter exists only at speeds greater than the speed of light. These points can be correspondingly called superspace and subspace. In order to leave our universe there is no need to look for its boundaries. It is enough to just lower the temperature to values below absolute zero or to exceed the speed of light and then we can find ourselves beyond the bounds of our universe. But matter, which exists in our universe can not exist in subspace or superspace. It should be transformed into another type of matter, which will correspond to the laws of matter existing in those realms. We can only assume that the energy level of subspace matter is lower, than the energy level of matter of our universe (E = mc^{2}), but the energy level of superspace is much greater. That is why, we are not able to observe matter or processes in subspace as well as in superspace.
In spite the fact we are not able to accept the notions of subspace and superspace, it is possible to observe their influence on our universe. This influence should be uniform, without any specific direction and correspond to low temperatures and energies of subspace, and to the high velocities and energies of superspace.
Having analyzed the experimental data, obtained from space exploration in radio wave band, the resulting phenomenon is background radiation, coming from all directions of space with the same intensity. Its temperature corresponds to 3°K. Although this radiation is considered to be a remnant (of the big bang), it also may be considered as a result of the influence on our universe, i.e. the process of space expanding from subspace is accompanied by low temperature radiation.
In 1972 high energy gammaraybursts (~10^{40} ergs) were discovered. The bursts are uniformly distributed throughout space without any specific direction. These «bursts» may be considered as a a superspace influence on our universein areas where space is expanding into superspace. Primary high energy cosmic rays which are also isotropic and are not changed in the course of time can be considered to be such an influence. Some directed research may discover other factors of subspace and superspace influences on our universe.
Let us consider the phenomenon of space expansion near a gravitational mass. According to the general theory of relativity the presence of mass causes a socalled «distortion» of space and that is why gravity happens. Because the chronofield has an influence on space and gravitational mass (m), the chronofield energy density decreases to the value E = mc^{2}. It causes the expansion of space near gravitational mass, which is slower than further away from it. Because of this fact, gravity happens and there is a sense to speak not about the «distortion» of space but about its «running down». So, gravitational waves will be considered as areas of space variable «density», which move with the speed of light. Clock stroke rate in the area of running down will be much more slower than beyond its limits. To find such gravitational waves we need to synchronize two clocks again and to compare the variations in their stroke rates. In areas of variable density in space clocks will slow down in turns. The problem is that the clocks should be withdrawn from each other a significant distance, because the waves of variable density space move with the speed of light.
This paper is devoted to an attempt to consider the structure of the universe in a new way, to explain the known phenomena from the point of view of chronofield existence. There are many unexplained questions left: what is the source of chronofield; how many dimensions are in subspace and superspace; how does the expansion of space happen, and so on. Probably, chronofield appears between two poles – superspace and subspace and our universe is located in time. The answers to these questions allow us to create the theory of chronofield, which will probably be the only way to unite all interactions in our universe.
Date of the publication:
November 25, 2001
Electronic version:
© NiT. Current publications, 1997